The dyer is highly respected for his skill and deserves credit for the beauty, clarity and depth of color in an Oriental Rug. In the Orient nearly every rug-making family has their own special formula for the dyeing of yarn, which has been handed down through several generations.
Three basic categories of dye are used for Persian and Oriental Rugs:
⦁ Natural Dyes
⦁ Aniline Dyes
⦁ Chrome Dyes
Natural dyes, the preferred choice among many top rug designers, give the yarn a natural sheen. They are made from flowers, roots, berries, bark and insects, as well as from minerals or metals such as iron.
Aniline dyes are acid-based synthetics. They are most typically used with poorer grades of wool and lower quality rugs. The harshness of these dyes result in wool that is stiff, hard and brittle.
Chromium dyes have been developed over the last 40 years. In quality they are now almost equal to vegetable dyes. They are colorfast in washing and will not harm wool. These dyes offer the rug designer a much wider variety of shades and colors than natural dyes.